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NAQC Newsroom: Research

Smoking Cessation Programs for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Intersex People: A Content-B

Thursday, September 8, 2016  
Posted by: Natalia Gromov
Israel Berger, Julie Mooney-Somers
Smoking Cessation Programs for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Intersex People: A Content-Based Systematic Review.
Nicotine Tob Res (2016)doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntw216First published online: August 31, 2016
Tobacco use among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people is double the general population. Limited evidence suggests high smoking rates among intersex people. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) people are a priority population in Australian health policy, particularly mental health and ageing. Despite associations between smoking and non-communicable diseases relevant to ageing and mental health, LGBTI-targeted smoking cessation interventions in Australia have been limited to people living with HIV. Applying existing interventions to marginalised populations without modification and evaluation may fail and exacerbate inequities. To access outcomes and characterize the populations served, cultural modifications, and behavioural change techniques (BCTs) of interventions to reduce LGBTI smoking.
We searched Medline, 6 additional databases, and contacted authors to retrieve published and unpublished program evaluations. We retrieved 19 studies (3663 participants). None used control groups. Overall quit rate was 61.0% at the end of interventions and stabilized at 38.6% at 3-6 months.

All studies included gay men, 13 lesbians, 13 “LGBT”, 12 bisexual people, 5 transgender people, and none included intersex people. Transgender people comprised 3% of participants. Of programs open to women, 27.8% of participants were women. Cultural modifications were used by 17 (89.5%) studies, commonly meeting in LGBT spaces, discussing social justice, and discussing LGBT-specific triggers. Common BCTs included providing normative information, boosting motivation/self-efficacy, relapse prevention, social support, action planning, and discussing consequences. Quit rates were high; using control groups would improve evaluation. Existing programs may fail to reach groups other than gay men. This review examines the evidence for LGBTI-targeted smoking cessation interventions. Populations within LGBTI are not proportionally represented in smoking cessation research, and no study addressed intersex smoking. Overall, LGBT-targeted interventions appear to be effective, and simply having an LGBT-specific group may be more effective than groups for the general population. More rigorous research is necessary to draw firm conclusions. Our study space analysis provides suggestions for areas of more targeted research on mechanisms underlying these complex interventions’ success.

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