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NAQC Newsroom: Research

Improving Tobacco Dependence Treatment Outcomes for Smokers of Lower Socioeconomic Status: A Randomi

Monday, November 13, 2017  
Posted by: Natalia Gromov
Sheffer CE, Bickel WK, Franck CT, Panissidi L, Pittman JC, Stayna H, Evans S.
Improving Tobacco Dependence Treatment Outcomes for Smokers of Lower Socioeconomic Status: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017 Oct 12;181:177-185. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.09.015. [Epub ahead of print]

Evidence-based treatments for tobacco dependence are significantly less effective for smokers of lower socioeconomic status which contributes to socioeconomic disparities in smoking prevalence rates and health. We aimed to reduce the socioeconomic gradient in treatment outcomes by systematically adapting evidence-based, cognitive-behavioral treatment for tobacco dependence for diverse lower socioeconomic smokers. Participants were randomized to adapted or standard treatment, received six 1-h group treatment sessions, and were followed for six months. We examined the effectiveness of the adapted treatment to improve treatment outcomes for lower socioeconomic groups. Participants (n=227) were ethnically, racially, and socioeconomically diverse. The adapted treatment significantly reduced the days to relapse for the two lowest socioeconomic groups: SES1: M=76.6 (SD 72.9) vs. 38.3 (SD 60.1) days to relapse (RR=0.63 95% CI, 0.45, 0.88, p=0.0013); SES2: M=88.2 (SD 67.3) vs. 40.1 (SD 62.6 days to relapse (RR=0.57 95% CI, 0.18, 0.70, p=0.0024). Interactions between socioeconomic status and condition were significant for initial abstinence (OR=1.26, 95% CI 1.09, 1.46, p=0.002), approached significance for 3-month abstinence (OR=0.90, 95% CI 0.80, 1.01, p<0.071), and were not significant for 6-month abstinence (OR=0.99 95% CI 0.88, 1.10, p=0.795). No significant differences in long-term abstinence were observed.  Systematic adaption of evidence-based treatment for tobacco dependence can significantly improve initial and short-term treatment outcomes for diverse lower socioeconomic smokers and reduce inequities in days to relapse. Novel methods of providing targeted extended support are needed to improve long-term outcomes.

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